Historia

70. rocznica śmierci gen. Tadeusza Kutrzeby – obrońcy września 1939

Dziś przypada rocznica śmierci Tadeusza Kutrzeby, generała dywizji Wojska Polskiego II RP, dowódcy Armii „Poznań”, która wzięła udział w bitwie nad Bzurą, największej batalii kampanii wrześniowej. Jest uważany za jednego z najwybitniejszych sztabowców II Rzeczypospolitej.

Urodził się 15 kwietnia 1886 r. w Krakowie w rodzinie z tradycjami wojskowymi. W wieku dziesięciu lat wysłany został przez kapitana armii austriackiej, do siedmioklasowej Szkoły Realnej w Fischau.

W 1903 r. zdał maturę w Wiedniu, później studiował na Wydziale Inżynieryjnym w Wojskowej Akademii Technicznej w Mödling, którą ukończył w 1906 r. z wynikiem celującym i nominacją na podporucznika saperów.

Przez kolejne cztery lata służył w 9. batalionie saperów w Krakowie. Następnie studiował w Akademii Sztabu Generalnego w Wiedniu. W międzyczasie awansował do stopnia porucznika. Do wybuchu wojny służył w Szefostwie Inżynierii w Sarajewie.

Początkowo walczył na froncie serbskim, a następnie na frontach całej Europy. Ostatnią pełnioną przez niego funkcją w trakcie działa wojennych było szefostwo sztabu austriackiej bazy w miejscowości Braiła na terenie Rumunii.

Po odzyskaniu niepodległości przez Polskę wstąpił do Wojska Polskiego. Przydzielono go do Oddziału I Sztabu Generalnego, gdzie był tam szefem sekcji planów i zastępcą szefa Oddziału. Jesienią 1919 r. został szefem sztabu 1. Dywizji Piechoty Legionów, a w niedługim czasie tę samą funkcję zaczął pełnić w Grupie Operacyjnej gen. Rydza-Śmigłego.

W grudniu 1919 r. awansował do stopnia majora. Podczas wojny polsko-bolszewickiej, pod koniec której został podpułkownikiem, uczestniczył w wyprawie na Kijów oraz w bitwie warszawskiej. W okresie międzywojennym był wykładowcą w Szkole Sztabu Głównego. Następnie został oddelegowany do służby w Sztabie Generalnym. W 1922 r. uzyskał awans na stopień pułkownika.

Z początkiem 1925 r. objął stanowisko II zastępcy szefa Sztabu Generalnego i szefa Biura Ścisłej Rady Wojennej. W grudniu 1926 r. został zastępcą szefa Sztabu Generalnego. Kilka miesięcy później awansowował na generała brygady.

Brał udział niemal we wszystkich konferencjach wojskowych i naradach sztabowych. Był cenionym wykładowcą i teoretykiem wojskowości. Od początku lat dwudziestych pisał liczne publikacje poświęcone tej dziedzinie, a w 1928 r. został komendantem Wyższej Szkoły Wojennej. W marcu 1939 r. awansował do stopnia generała dywizji i objął dowództwo nowo utworzonej Armii „Poznań”.

Podczas wojny obronnej 1939 r. brał udział w bitwie pod Bzurą, stojąc na czele połączonych Armii „Poznań” i „Pomorze”. Starcie zakończyło się porażką Polaków. Po przebiciu się z resztkami wojsk 22 września do Warszawy został na krótko zastępcą gen. dyw. Juliusza Rómmla, dowódcy Armii „Warszawa”. Tuż przed upadkiem miasta prowadził ze stroną niemiecką rozmowy kapitulacyjne i 28 września podpisał akt kapitulacji stolicy.

Po klęsce w kampanii wrześniowej trafił do niewoli i do końca wojny przebywał w obozach jenieckich dla oficerów na terenie Niemiec. W oflagach organizował i prowadził tajne kursy wojskowości wśród innych więźniów.

Po wyzwoleniu obozu w kwietniu 1945 r. przez wojska amerykańskie udał się do Londynu, gdzie Rząd Polski na uchodźstwie zaproponował mu objęcie stanowiska ministra obrony narodowej, którego nie przyjął. Stanął natomiast na czele Komisji Historycznej Kampanii Wrześniowej. Uczestniczył też w tworzeniu Instytutu im. gen. Władysława Sikorskiego w Londynie.

Gen. Tadeusz Kutrzeba zmarł 8 stycznia 1947 r. w Londynie. W 1957 r. jego prochy sprowadzono i symbolicznie pochowano w Alei Zasłużonych na Cmentarzu Wojskowym na Powązkach w Warszawie.

Gen. Kutrzeba był odznaczony m.in.: Krzyżem Komandorskim Orderu Wojennego Virtuti Militari, Krzyżem Kawalerskim Orderu Wojennego Virtuti Militari, Krzyżem Srebrnym Orderu Wojennego Virtuti Militari, Krzyżem Komandorskim Orderu Odrodzenia Polski, Krzyżem Oficerskim Orderu Odrodzenia Polski oraz trzykrotnie Krzyżem Walecznych.

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