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Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka: Surogacja nie tworzy więzów rodzinnych

Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka potwierdził, że w zakres pojęcia „życie rodzinne” nie wchodzi relacja między dzieckiem a osobami z nim niespokrewnionymi, kreowana sprzecznie z prawem.

 

24 stycznia 2017 r., Wielka Izba Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka, wydała istotny wyrok, dotyczący macierzyństwa zastępczego. W sprawie Paradiso i Campanelli  przeciwko Włochom, Trybunał uznał, że włoskie władze działały zgodnie z prawem, pozbawiając skarżących opieki nad dzieckiem, które pozyskali korzystając z usług surogatki, co w świetle włoskiego prawa jest całkowicie nielegalne.

Dziecko zostało poczęte metodą in vitro, na zamówienie, które zostało zrealizowane za pośrednictwem firmy Rosjurconsulting, specjalizującej się w tego typu usługach.

Władze Włoch, dostrzegając naruszenie prawa międzynarodowego i włoskiego porządku publicznego, zdecydowały, że w interesie dziecka jest odsunąć nabywców dziecka od opieki nad nim i umieścić je w ośrodku adopcyjnym celem znalezienia dla niego rodziny adopcyjnej w sposób zgodny z prawem.

Trybunał w pierwszym orzeczeniu dotyczącym niniejszej sprawy, które zapadło 27 stycznia 2015 r., nakazał Włochom wypłacić skarżącym 30 tysięcy euro tytułem odszkodowania uznając, że odebranie dziecka naruszyło ich prawo do poszanowania ich życia prywatnego i rodzinnego. Trybunał potwierdził prawo włoskich władz do odmowy legalizacji surogacji, jednak uznał, że nabycie dziecka mogło stanowić założenie rodziny, co podlega już ochronie Europejskiej Konwencji Praw Człowieka, przynajmniej tak długo, jak nabywcy zachowują się jak rodzice. Trybunał wywnioskował z tego, że ochrona życia rodzinnego w tej formie jest ważniejsza niż poszanowanie porządku publicznego, a w interesie dziecka leży jego wychowanie przez nabywców. W ten sposób, Trybunał zajął stanowisko, z którego wynikałoby, że sprzedaż dziecka dokonuje się, w imię jego najlepiej pojętego interesu.

W przeciwieństwie do pierwszego orzeczenia, Wielka Izba Trybunału przypomniała, że „Konwencja nie przyznaje prawa do stania się rodzicem”, i wyjaśnił, iż „interes publiczny” przeważa nad subiektywnym „pragnieniem zostania rodzicem”. Trybunał uznał dodatkowo, że „zgoda na pozostanie dziecka ze skarżącymi byłaby równoznaczna z legalizacją sytuacji, która naruszyłaby ważne zasady włoskiego prawa”.

W opinii ekspertów Instytutu Ordo Iuris wyrok Wielkiej Izby ETPC w sprawie Paradiso i Campanella gwarantuje państwom Rady Europy możliwość zdecydowanego sprzeciwiania się w swym prawodawstwie i zapobiegania szerzeniu się na międzynarodową skalę procederu surogacji.

 

Ordo Iuris

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