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Szokujące opinie o Rosji z pierwszej połowy XIX wieku markiza Astolphe de Custine

Od prawie dwu wieków „Listy z Rosji” Astolphe de Custine (obecnie wydane staraniem Editions Spotkania) szokują czytelników. Tych z połowy XIX wieku szokowały krytyka carskiej Rosji dokonaną przez francuskiego arystokratę (podczas gdy równocześnie słono opłacani zachodni intelektualiści prześcigali się w zachwytach nad carską Rosją), tych z XX wieku tym jak opis patologii Rosji carskiej był adekwatny do sytuacji w Rosji sowieckiej, oraz obecnych tym jak obserwacje XIX wiecznego markiza są i dziś trafne.

 

Nienawidzący demokracji i wolności obywatelskich markiz Astolphe de Custine przybył do Rosji by napisać panegiryk na temat carskiej Rosji wolnej od porewolucyjnych patologi. Realia caratu, despotyzm w Rosji, sprawił, że zamiast panegiryku napis prace o potrzebie wolności i szkodliwości władzy absolutnej, na przykładzie Rosji (co niezwykle zirytowało Rosjan, ukrywających realia swojego kraju za fasadą wykreowanego nieprawdziwego pozytywnego wizerunku Rosji).

Swoją podróż markiz odbył w 1839 roku. W swoich relacjach z Rosji opisał wrogość Rosji wobec katolicyzmu. Wrogość ta wynika z tego, że Kościół katolicki jest instytucją niezależną wobec władzy, nie wahającą się przed krytyką niemoralnych posunięć władzy, podczas gdy rosyjska cerkiew jest instrumentem władzy, który ma kreować w poddanych przekonanie o słuszności wszelkich posunięć władzy, w tym i tych nie moralnych. Nienawiść do katolicyzmu Rosji szczególnie objawiała się w prześladowaniu przez Rosję katolickiej Polski, dla prawosławnych Rosjan prześladowanie Polaków katolików to działanie moralne. Zdaniem markiza Kościół katolicki tworzy ludzi moralnych, a prawosławna cerkiew bezwolne narzędzia władzy. Markiz zauważył też, że prawosławie nie angażuje się w ewangelizowanie ludzi, przez co wiara Rosjan jest płytka i szybko ulegają oni wszelkim herezjom. Zdaniem markiza religia w Rosji nie ma wpływu na Rosjan, cerkiew nie ma autorytetu wśród Rosjan, i „potrafi tylko kształtować ludzi obłudnych lub zabobonnych”.

Z relacji markiza wynika, że Rosjanie są egocentryczni, nie mają zdolności refleksji nad własnymi wadami, są bezinteresownie i mimowolnie służalczy wobec władzy. Według markiza Rosjanie kochają być zniewalani przez władze – „o Rosjanach wielkich i małych można powiedzieć, że są pijani niewolą”.

Mentalne zniewolenie Rosjan markiz dostrzegł w tym, że chłopi rosyjscy postrzegają siebie w kategoriach niewolników, są gotowi wspierać finansowo dziedzica uznawanego przez nich za dobrego by ich kupił – w Rosji ziemie sprzedawano razem z chłopami. Chłopom nie zleży na tym by być wolnymi. Markiz w swych wspomnieniach zauważył, że w chłopach rosyjskich tkwi pragnienie wymordowania szlachty.

Markiz przestrzega przed wiarą w przechwałki Rosjan, twierdził, że Rosja to państwo, którego mieszkańcy nieustannie kreują przed cudzoziemcami nieprawdziwy pozytywny wizerunek rzeczywistości w Rosji. Zdaniem markiza Rosjanie najbardziej lubią tych cudzoziemców, których najłatwiej dają się oszukiwać.

Markiz uznawał, że Rosjanie małpują karykaturalnie zachód – markiz twierdził, że „Rosjanie biorą wystawność za wytworność, zbytek za grzeczność, policje i strach za podstawy społeczeństwa. W ich pojęciu dyscyplina oznacza cywilizacje”. Zdaniem markiza Rosjanie to dzikusy z pretensjami „do dobrych manier” i powierzchownym wykształceniem, zepsuci, zadowalający się pozorami cywilizacji. Według markiza Rosjanie starają się ze wszystkich sił by być obłudnymi, mistrzami kłamstwa i hipokryzji.

Zdaniem markiza w Rosji ludzie nie mają swobody, wszyscy są zależni od przełożonych jak automaty. Koszty funkcjonowania takiego zmilitaryzowanego społeczeństwa są dużo większe od kosztów funkcjonowania społeczeństwa bardziej wolnego. Według markiza, ustrój Rosji gwarantuje odcięcie Rosji przez władze od kontaktów z zachodem – kontakt taki mógłby uświadomić Rosjanom wyższość zachodu nad Rosją.

Markiz w swoich relacjach dostrzegał, że cywilizacja zachodnia nad Rosją góruje 1000 lat rozwoju cywilizacyjne, między zachodem i Rosją panuje obcość cywilizacyjna. Odmienność cywilizacyjna Rosji wynika z tego, że Rosja była przez wieki lennikiem mongołów. Z Bizancjum Rosja przyjęła hipokryzje i krętactwa, a od mongołów despotyczny ustrój władzy. Wieki niewoli zdemoralizowały Rosjan i uczyniły ich gnuśnymi.

Rosja z opisów markiza to kraj „jednostajny, pusty, bez niespodzianek, bez kolorów, bez granic”, bez słońca, szary i pusty. Kraj w którym ogromne zimno niszczy wszelkie budynki. W którym wszędzie plenią się pluskwy. Markiz opisał rosyjską wieś jako szokująco prymitywną i śmierdząca. Dodatkowo markiz uznał, że Rosjanki nie są zbyt urodziwe, a Rosjanie nieustanie są pijani.

Rosja według markiza to kraj gigantycznej biurokracji, która marnotrawi czas, męczy, daje despotyczną władze urzędnikom nad ludźmi – dla markiza „Rosja jest krajem zbędnych formalności”. Według markiza „rosyjska policja tak żwawa, gdy chodzi o dręczenie ludzi, jest powolna” gdy trzeba wykazywać się troską o bezpieczeństwo zwykłych ludzi (markiz nie kryje też tego, że rosyjska policja dokonywała zbrodni kryminalnych, w tym i morderstw).

Zdaniem markiza w Rosji panuje absolutny brak szacunku dla życia ludzkiego (czego wyrazem była ogromna śmiertelność robotników budujących Petersburg), solidarność społeczna nie istnieje, powszechna hierarchiczność powoduje powszechną akceptacje brutalności wyżej postawionych wobec niżej postawionych.

Jan Bodakowski

WSZYSTKIE PRAWA DO TEKSTU ZASTRZEŻONE. Możesz udostępniać tekst w serwisach społecznościowych, ale zabronione jest kopiowanie tekstu w części lub całości przez inne redakcje i serwisy internetowe bez zgody redakcji pod groźbą kary i może być ścigane prawnie.

143 komentarze

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    12 marca 2017 at 22:19

    Obowiązkowa lektura dla wszystkich rusofilów.
    To trzeba przeczytać lub odsłuchać w internecie.
    Podam tylko jeden kwiatek: „Rosjanie znajdują przyjemność, co więcej czerpią siłę ze znęcania się nad słabszym i bezbronnym.” – jak to bardzo pomaga zrozumieć bestialstwa rosyjskich bolszewików, a także w dużym stopniu mentalność Ukraińców.

  2. fshut

    13 marca 2017 at 01:00

    Sama prawda – tęskno tylko za taką katolicką publicystyką – tak,tak, nie,nie
    Dzisiaj zostałby ogłoszony homofobem, antysemitą, rasistą i brak miłosierdzia dla bliźnich w myśl SW II.

    • LSED

      13 marca 2017 at 20:36

      Markiz nie zostałby ogłoszony „homo…” (co to za obrzydliwy lewacki nowotwór językowy brrr..) gdyż był pedałem. Uprawiał sodomię m.in. z polskojęzycznym zaprzańcem i socjalistą, który chciał przerobić Polaków na Niemców – Henrykiem Brezą.

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    Właśnie czytam Listy.Chociaż książka jest wypożyczona z biblioteki,podkreślam ołówkiem co celniejsze i uwaga! aktualne oceny.Mam ochotę kupić tę książkę,jest kapitalna!

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    Proponuje sprawdzic kim byl autor, jaki tryb zycia prowadzil, co robil, z czego sie utrzymywal i po co rzeczywiscie pojechal do Rosji. Bynajmniej nie po to zeby ksizaki pisac, ani tym bardziej w celach turystycznych.

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