Historia

Sprawa polska w rosyjskiej Dumie. Józef Nakonieczny

Za działalność narodową, którą podjął jeszcze jako nastolatek, trafił na zesłanie. Był przeciwnikiem socjalistów, którzy zorganizowali nieudaną próbę zamachu na jego życie. Zginął 11 kwietnia 1915 r. w wypadku samochodowym.

Józef Nakonieczny przyszedł na świat 19 marca 1879 r. we wsi Miesiące na Lubelszczyźnie w rodzinie chłopskiej. Jego rodzice pracowali okresowo u właściciela majątku Garbów, hrabiego Aleksandra Jezierskiego. Był samoukiem, korzystał z domowej biblioteki Jezierskich. Szczególnie interesowała go historia i literatura polska.

Działalność narodową podjął jeszcze jako nastolatek. Będąc kurierem, sprowadzał do Królestwa Polskiego zakazaną literaturę i konspiracyjne czasopisma np. „Polak”. Pomagał prześladowanym przez carat unitom, przeprowadzał rodziny przez zieloną granicę na tereny Galicji.

Jako publicysta poruszał aktualną tematykę społeczną i polityczną. Współpracował z redakcjami pism związanych z ruchem narodowym, ale nie tylko. Interesował się też etnografią, kulturą i obyczajami ludowymi.

W 1903 r. aresztowany za działalność antypaństwową, został zesłany na 3 lata do Wołogdy. Pracował przy budowie linii kolejowej. W rodzinne strony wrócił po kilkunastu miesiącach w wyniku amnestii.

Należał do tajnej Ligi Narodowej, a także do działającego legalnie Stronnictwa Narodowo-Demokratycznego (SND). W 1905 r. wziął udział w zjeździe chłopskim w Warszawie, podczas którego przemawiał obok Romana Dmowskiego, domagając się m.in. autonomii dla Królestwa Polskiego i swobód narodowych.

Po wybuchu rewolucji ostro przeciwstawiał się akcjom ugrupowań lewicowych. Z tego powodu sam stał się celem bojówek socjalistycznych. W sierpniu 1906 r. zorganizowano nieudaną próbę zamachu na jego życie.

W 1906 r. z ramienia SND zdobył mandat poselski do pierwszej Dumy Państwowej. W czasie trwającej tylko 73 dni kadencji krytykował projekt reformy rolnej, bronił własności prywatnej, postulował utworzenie banku udzielającego kredytów włościanom.

Później działał w Centralnym Towarzystwie Rolniczym, Towarzystwie Oświaty Narodowej oraz coraz bardziej represjonowanej przez carat Macierzy Polskiej. Z jego inicjatywy w regionie powstawały tajne szkoły oraz towarzystwa i kółka rolnicze.

W latach 1909-1911 był posłem trzeciej i czwartej Dumy. Po wybuchu I wojny światowej popierał inicjatywy polityczne SDN, zmierzające do odbudowania suwerennej Polski. Był sygnatariuszem Komitetu Narodowego Polskiego. Współpracował z czasopismami, które były związane z ruchem narodowym i ludowym.

Józef Nakonieczny zginął 11 kwietnia 1915 r. pod Kurowem w wypadku samochodowym. W jego pogrzebie wzięło udział kilka tysięcy ludzi.

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