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We wrześniu ruszą pierwsze prace poszukiwawcze na Białorusi. Czy to przełom?

Po raz pierwszy od wielu lat władze Białorusi pozwoliły IPN na przeprowadzenie na terenie tego kraju prac poszukiwawczych. Mają one ruszyć już 4 września. Poszukiwane będą szczątki żołnierzy Korpusu Ochrony Pogranicza, którzy 17 września 1939 roku zginęli z rąk czerwonoarmistów. Czy decyzja władz Białorusi jest przełomem, który w  przyszłości pozwoli odszukać szczątki ofiar m.in. Obławy Augustowskiej oraz Operacji Polskiej ?

 

Dzięki wydaniu zgody przez Białoruś prace poszukiwawcze IPN zostaną przeprowadzone w pobliżu strażnicy Korpusu Ochrony Pogranicza w miejscowości Pohost (rejon wilejski na północny zachód od Mińska). – Będziemy poszukiwali szczątków kilkunastu żołnierzy. Jeżeli zostaną odnalezione, przeprowadzona zostanie ich ekshumacja – powiedział dr Leon Popek, naczelnik Wydziału Kresowego IPN. Ze źródeł historycznych wiadomo, iż żołnierze ci zginęli dokładnie w dniu agresji ZSSR na Polskę 17 września 1939 roku. Nie jest jednak jasne czy polegli w walce z czerwonoarmistami, czy też zostali oni przez wrogów pojmani, a dopiero po jakimś czasie, zamordowani. Te wątpliwości może rozwiać dokładne zbadanie szczątek.

Zwłoki żołnierzy polskich zostały pochowane przez miejscową ludność. Obecnie w miejscu pochówku jest pole. Polskim naukowcom w czasie ekshumacji pomogą białoruscy żołnierze ze specjalnego batalionu. Prace powinny zostać zakończone do końca września.

Wydanie, przez białoruskich decydentów, zgody na przeprowadzenie prac poszukiwawczych polscy historycy i dyplomaci określają zgodnie jako wydarzenie przełomowe, które może doprowadzić do znacznego postępu, a nawet zakończenia z sukcesem, wielu śledztw prokuratury IPN.

Jednym z najważniejszych, które od lat czeka na przychylność Białorusi, jest śledztwo ws. Obławy Augustowskiej. Prowadząca je od roku 2001 prokuratura białostockiego oddziału IPN  wielokrotnie wysyłała na Białoruś wnioski o pomoc prawną, jednak do tej pory bez skutku.   Rok temu białoruska prokuratura nie wyraziła zgody na przeprowadzenie badań poszukiwawczych na terenie przygranicznym, w okolicach jeziora Szlamy i wsi Kalety. Jest to miejsce określone przez IPN jako najbardziej prawdopodobna lokalizacja dołów śmierci, w których mogą się znajdować szczątki od około 600 do nawet około 2000 ofiar Obławy Augustowskiej, największej sowieckiej zbrodni na Polakach popełnionej po wojnie.

Inne szczególnie ważne prace poszukiwawcze, jakie Polska chciałaby przeprowadzić na terenie Białorusi dotyczą m.in. uroczyska Kuropaty koło Mińska, stolicy Białorusi. W masowych grobach spoczywają tam ofiary egzekucji dokonywanych przez NKWD. Według niezależnych historyków na uroczysku Kuropaty znajdują się szczątki ponad 200 tys. osób. Obok siebie leżą pomordowani Polacy i Białorusini, którzy sprzeciwili się komunistycznej władzy. Zdaniem historyków, mogło tu być także rozstrzelanych i pochowanych 3872 Polaków z tzw. „białoruskiej listy katyńskiej”, zamordowanych na rozkaz Stalina w kwietniu i maju 1940 r.

Kolejna zbrodnia stalinowska, której ofiary spoczywają w białoruskiej ziemi, a trzeba ich szczątki odszukać i godnie pochować, to  Operacja Polska. 80 rocznicę, tego największego sowieckiego ludobójstwa na Polakach, obchodzimy bieżącym roku. Niedawno IPN rozpoczął śledztwo w tej sprawie. Przeprowadzona przez NKWD, na terenach białoruskiej i ukraińskiej ZSSR, Operacja Polska rozpoczęła się w sierpniu 1937 roku i trwała do jesieni 1938 roku. Jak szacuje rosyjski historyk Nikita Pietrow ze Stowarzyszenia Memoriał (którego członkowie w latach 90’ mieli wgląd do rosyjskich archiwów) podczas operacji aresztowano prawie 144 tys. osób, z których rozstrzelano, przeważnie strzałem w tył głowy, około 111 tysięcy. Kolejnych 100 tys. osób zostało wywiezionych w bydlęcych wagonach w głąb ZSRS lub poddanych innym represjom. Wielu z nich zmarło z powodu głodu i wyczerpania.

IPN posiada wiedzę o kilku miejscach na Białorusi, gdzie ofiary tej ogromnej zbrodni mogły zostać pochowane.  Chce również prowadzić prace poszukiwawcze szczątek żołnierzy polskiego podziemia niepodległościowego, których na terenie dzisiejszej Białorusi zginęło wielu. Aby jednak przeprowadzenie tych poszukiwań było możliwe, potrzebna jest zgoda władz tego sąsiedniego państwa. Pierwsza taka dobra decyzja została podjęta – to daje nadzieje na przyszłość.

Źródła – rp.pl, AB

Adam Białous

 

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